Rosenborg castle was initially built in 1606-15 as a two-storey house and royal retreat. It was further extended in the period up to 1624 and completed to its current appearance circa 1634. The architecture has been attributed to Hans van Steenwinckel the younger or Bertel Lange.
Amagertorv 6 is one of the few remaining renaissance houses in Copenhagen, having survived both the great fire of 1728 and 1795. The house was constructed for the later mayor Mathias Hansen in red brick with sandstone ornaments. It was restored in 1898 for the insurance company Hafnia, which resulted in the insertion of large windows on the ground floor. The houses to either side are from the 18th century, with significant 19th century redesigns to the two facades on the far left.
The gabled brick building on Strandgade is one of the oldest houses in Christianshavn and was built already in 1622. The facade was previously plastered but the house was restored to a more original look after 1943. The building on the left was built around 1635 and a third house, out of view in this picture, is from about 1622-24. The red house on the right has a facade from 1769 but was redeveloped from two previous houses from 1626.
The stock exchange was built in 1619-25 by Lorenz Steenwinckel and Hans Steenwinckel the Younger. The tower was designed by Ludvig Heidritter and replaced with a copy in 1775-77. The spire was originally in lead while the current is clad in copper.
The church of Holmen was originally an anchor forge designed by Peter de Dunker in a style that reflected the prominent location rather than its use. The building was converted to a naval church in 1617-20. It was expanded and rebuilt in 1641-43 by Leonhard Blasius with new transept wings and increased height to the level of the previous tower. A gate taken from the cathedral in Roskilde was added in 1872.
The headquarters of the Danish National Archives was completed in 1673 by the architects Albert Mathisen and Thomas Rasmussen Walgensteen. It housed the royal library until 1906, the collection was opened to the public for the first time in 1793.
Charlottenborg was the first town mansion on Kongens Nytorv and was built in 1672-83 for Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve. The architect was probably Ewert Janssen to a design inspired by a proposal for the Amsterdam city hall, while the rear wing was designed by Lambert van Haven and added later. The name Charlottenborg was adopted after 1700 when the mansion was sold to the Queen Mother, Charlotte Amalie.
The church of Our Saviour was built in 1682-95 as a replacement for the temporary structure inaugurated in 1639. It was to serve as the main church of Christianshavn, a town founded by Christian IV and initially independent from Copenhagen. The architect was Lambert van Haven. The famous spire was only added in 1749-52 and was designed by Lauritz de Thurah.
Moltke's mansion was built in 1700-02 for Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve and was originally known as Gyldenløve's little mansion, in reference to his previous larger residence in Kongens Nytorv which he had sold in 1700. The architect was Ernst Brandenburger. It was one of the first buildings in what would become Frederiksstaden and replaced a house built in the 1680's. The sandstone decorations were added in 1716-23 by Johan Cornelius Krieger. An extension was made along Dronningens Tværgade in 1878-80, including a heavily decorated baroque portal, by architect Theodor Zeltner. The mansion had by then passed to the Moltke family in 1842.
Magstræde has some of the oldest private houses in Copenhagen, having survived the fire of 1795. Most of the buildings are from the 1730s, as the city recovered after the fire of 1728. However, numbers 17 and 19 (first one on the right) survived both fires and are believed to be from the 1640's.
The building erected for the Asiatic Company, a successor to the Danish East India Company, in 1738 was designed by architect Philip de Lange. A second building was added in 1781 with an identical facade to the original in Strandgate. However, the facade on the waterfront is plain and only shares the mansard roof in common with the older building.
The Prince's Mansion was mainly completed in 1743-44 by Nicolai Eigtved as part of a rebuilding of a previous house from 1684. A redesign of the original house had already taken place in 1725 by the architect Johan Cornelius Krieger when it was first adopted as the residence of the Crown Prince. An extension was completed by Lauritz de Thurah in 1757. Further extensions were carried out in 1929-38 by architects Mogens Clemmensen and Arne Nystrøm, including the 38 granite columns fronting Stormgade, and in 1989-92. The mansion has housed the national museum since 1892.
The Marble bridge and pavilions were designed by Nicolai Eigtved and completed in 1744, as part of first Christiansborg project. The overall design for the palace was by Elias David Hausser and mostly built in 1731-45. However, Hausser retired in 1742 and it was left to Eigtved to complete the works. The total cost of construction is said to have been about half of the state's annual income. Yet, the palace only lasted until 1794 when it was destroyed in a fire. The only remaining parts of the palace are the pavilions and riding ground complex. The north wing of the complex was built before Eigtved took over in 1642, while the remainder is his work. The first Christiansborg palace replaced a previous medieval-renaissance structure known as Copenhagen Castle. The current Christiansborg (1907-18) is clad in granite in contrast to the sandstone used for the riding ground complex and pavilions.
Along the canal in Christianshavn (Overgaden Oven Vandet 16-26): Both blue houses have origins from the 17th century, while the rest were mostly built between 1730-50, except the taller yellow house completed around 1802.
Gammelstrand 48 was built in 1750-51 to a design by Philip de Lange. A third storey was added after the fire in 1795 and the top gable was added in 1930. The entrance portal in sandstone was executed by Andreas Gercken the younger in 1750.
Bernstorff's mansion was built in 1752-56 to a design by Johan Gottfried Rosenberg, who also designed the twin building across the street, known as the Dehn mansion. Some alterations were made to the house in 1892 by the architect Jørgen Hansen Koch.
Stanley's mansion was built in Christianshavn in 1755-56 for the sculptor and professor Simon Carl Stanley. Originally, only the central section had two floors but the side-wings were added to in 1783. Stanley was presumably himself the architect.
The Odd Fellows mansion was built in 1751-57 for Christian August von Berckentin by the architect Johan Gottfried Rosenberg. Two new pavilions fronting Bredgade were built in 1880's and a concert hall was added to the back of the building, but the latter was destroyed by fire in 1992. Odd Fellows bought the mansion in 1901.
Christian's Church was built in in 1754-59 as a church for the German community in Christianshavn, an area founded specifically for merchants and which had attracted many German traders and craftsmen. The architect was Nicolai Eigtved, who died shortly after he submitted his designs, and the building was financed by lottery. It was originally called Frederik's German church but it was decided in 1901 to change the name to avoid confusion with Frederik's church in Frederiksstaden, after the German congregation was dissolved in 1886.
Amalienborg Palace was built as four separate mansions in 1750-60. The mansions were designed by Nicolai Eigtved, and completed by Lauritz de Thurah after Eigtved's death in 1754. The plots were originally given to aristocrats for free on the condition that they followed the overall design and built within a certain period of time. The royal family bought the mansions after the destruction of Christiansborg Palace in 1794. A colonnade was built between two of the mansions in 1794-95 by Caspar Frederik Harsdorff.
The Thott mansion was originally built in 1683-86 as the residence of the naval officer, Niels Juel, to a design by Lambert von Haven. It was the second house to be built on Kongens Nytorv. However, the current look stems from a redesign by the architect Nicolas-Henri Jardin in 1763-64. The mansion now houses the French embassy. The building on the left was completed in 1896 for the insurance company Standard by the architect Christian Arntzen.
Harsdorff's mansion is actually three different houses built by the architect Caspar Frederik Harsdorff in 1779-80. The last of the three houses stands diagonally to the other two, breaking the symmetry, apparently due to the location of a former service building to Charlottenborg.
Højbro Plads was created after the fire in 1795 and opened up the space between Amagertorv and Slotsholmen. Most of the houses in the new square was built in the period 1796-99. St Nicholas church, originally constructed in the 13th century and rebuilt around 1500, was mostly destroyed in 1795 but the tower, which was added in 1582-91, survived. It lost the spire from 1611, but a reconstructed version was added in 1909. The main body of the building, also a reconstruction, was completed in 1912. However, the building hasn't been used for church services since 1805.
The buildings in Ved Stranden were mostly built after the fire in 1795. The building on the left was probably designed by J. H. Rawert, the fourth floor being added in 1886, and used to be the location of Hotel Royal. The building with the columns is known as the Gustmeyer House and was designed by Johan Martin Quist in 1797.
Erichsen's mansion was built in 1797-1801 by architect Caspar Frederik Harsdorff, who died before it was completed. It was restored and rebuilt in 1888-92 and again in 1928-30. It is one of the first houses in Denmark where classical columns are you used for the residence of a commoner.
The construction of a second Christiansborg palace started in 1803 to replace the building destroyed in 1794. Only fragments remain as this structure also succumbed to flames in 1884. The remains can be seen on the ground floor of the north front facing Prince George's Yard. An entrance portal was also reused and now serves as the main entrance to the Supreme Court. The architect for the second Christiansborg palace was Christian Frederik Hansen and works were completed in 1828. On the right can be seen Thorvaldsen Museum, completed in a Greek-Egyptian inspired style by Micheael Gottlieb Bindesbøll in 1838-48.
The courthouse building was completed in 1816 by architect Christian Frederik Hansen and served as the city hall until 1905. It replaced the previous city hall, which burned in the fire of 1795. Whereas the old building had stood at the junction between the squares of Gammeltorv and Nytorv, the new one was moved to the west corner of Nytorv. This was done to prevent the spread of fire and thus opened up the space between the two squares. The site of the new city hall was found on the spot where Vajsenhuset had previously stood.
The Palace Chapel was built in 1813-26 to a design by Christian Frederik Hansen. It replaced a previous chapel designed by Nicolai Eigtved, which was destroyed in the the palace fire of 1794. The rebuilt palace suffered another devastating fire in 1884 but the chapel survived. Fire damaged the chapel in 1992 but it was rebuilt faithfully to Hansen's original designs.
The buildings fronting Nybrogade are mostly from the first half of the 19th century, or given their current look in that period. The exception is the gabled houses on the right, built after the fire in 1728.
The buildings on Søtorvet were constructed in 1873-75 by the Copenhagen Building Company to designs by architects Ferdinand Vilhelm Jensen and Vilhelm Petersen. The area used to be part of the city's fortifications but came available for development after the decommissioning in 1868. The Queen Louise Bridge was built in the 1880s connecting the inner city with the district of Nørrebro.
The Royal Danish Theatre was built in 1872-74 to designs by architects Vilhelm Dahlerup and Ove Petersen, after they had won a competition in 1871. It replaced a previous theatre-building by Caspar Frederik Harsdorff from 1774, which in turn replaced a theatre by Nicolai Eigtved from 1748. The dome on the right belongs to the department store Magasin du Nord, completed in 1893 by architect Albert Jensen, on the site of the previous Hotel du Nord.
Frederiksholm Kanal 4 was built in 1888 in renaissance style and was designed by architect Valdermar Ingemann. The building on the opposite side of street with a narrow facade to Nybrogade is from 1886. The little yellow house on the right is from sometime between 1728 and 1757, with the third storey added later in that century.
The Marble Church or Frederik's Church, as its officially known, was built in 1877-94 by the architect Ferdinand Meldahl. The original project for a church on this location was begun in 1750 when Nicolai Eigtved made the first designs. The task was later given to Nicolas-Henri Jardin who submitted new plans, but construction slowed and came to a complete halt in 1770. Many architects submitted ideas for the completion of the church in the coming decades but things didn't start to move until the site was sold into private hands in 1874. The condition of the sale was for the new owner to complete the church but this was delayed by the need to demolish the existing half-structure. Meldahl was originally assistant to Christian Zwingmann but took over after the latter retired due to poor health in the mid-1870s. The buildings surrounding the church were designed by Meldahl and completed in 1886. However, the financier behind the project, Carl Frederik Tietgen, was unable to purchase the necessary plots in the southwest corner to complete the full lay-out.
The former DFDS headquarters in Sankt Annæ Plads was built in 1891 by the architect Albert Jensen. DFDS was founded in 1866 by Carl Frederik Tietgen.
The National Gallery of Denmark (Statens Museum for Kunst) was built in 1889-1896 by architects Vilhelm Dahlerup and Georg Møller on a site that was previously part of the city's fortification ring. The royal collection of paintings was originally housed in Christiansborg Palace but a new venue was needed after the palace fire in 1884. A modern extension of the museum-building was completed in 1998.
In between the late 18th century houses on Højbro Plads, number 5 does convincing job of looking like it's from the 17th century, when in fact it was built in 1896-97 by architect Martin Borch. The facade is mostly intact with the exception of the ground floor. On the left, Højbrohus (Østergade 61) was built in 1896 by architect Richard Bergmann.
Ny Carlsberg Glypotek was built completed in 1897 by the architect Vilhelm Dahlerup to house the personal sculpture collection of Carl Jacobsen. The collection had opened to the public in 1882 in a private building, but was moved to a new publicly financed museum after Jacobsen donated his collection in 1888. The original building was significantly enlarged in 1906 by the architect Hack Kampmann, and a third building was added in 1996. The building on the left was built for the Royal Danish Academy of Music in 1906 by architect Christian Laurits Thuren.
This building, originally the headquarters of Privatbanken, was built in 1901-04 by architect Axel Berg. The bank was founded in 1857 and was part of a series of mergers, which eventually resulted in the creation on Nordea.
Copenhagen city hall was built in 1892-1905 to a design by Martin Nyrop. The location just to the west of the old city became available when the ring of fortifications at its perimeter was decommissioned in the second half of the 19th century. This picture is taken from Vester Voldgade, which used to be a narrow road between the city and the ramparts. Helmerhus (right), also known as the Utrecht building, was built on top of the removed ramparts in 1892-93 by architects Knud Arne Petersen and Henrik Hagemann. The location of the city hall also encouraged the modernisation of buildings on the existing city side, including many new hotels. The two white buildings on the left were opened as Hotel Hafnia (1899) and Hotel Kong Frederik (1898) respectively, by architects Phillip Smidth and Rogert Møller. Smidth also designed Politikens Hus in 1904-07 on the corner of Vestergade, which like most of the other buildings on this side of Rådhuspladsen is brick-faced and takes inspiration from the city hall. The space in between Hotel Kong Frederik and Politikens Hus was only modernised in 1934-37 by architects Emanuel Monberg and Axel Maar.
Despite its 17th century appearance, Frederiksholms Kanal 6 was built in 1904 to a design by architect Axel Preisler. The yard in the back has a cannonball inserted into the masonry, probably originating from the Swedish assault on the city in 1659.
The pilastered building on the corner of Højbro Plads and Gammelstrand was built for the fire insurance company Kgl. Brand in 1905-06. The architect was Fritz Koch followed by Gotfred Tvede who finished the work after Koch's death in 1905. The building on the right is from 1797.
Grønningen 1 was built in 1906-08 by the architect Henning Hansen as a block of flats. The insurance company Købstædernes forsikring, engraved on the facade, did not move in until 1944.
The Royal Danish Library was completed in 1906 to a design by architect Hans Jørgen Holm. The building includes a copy of Charlemagne's Palace chapel in the Aachen cathedral. The collection was previously housed in Fiolstræde.
Kultorvet was created after the fire in 1728. The large building on the right was built in 1908 by the architect Christian Hansen , while the corner building on the other side of Købmagergade is from 1906-07 by the architect Vilhelm Fischer.
The third Christiansborg Palace was constructed in 1907-18 to designs by architect Thorvald Jørgensen. Unlike the previous two palaces, the current building is faced with granite instead of sandstone, with the exception of the ground floor of one of the lateral courtyards where remnants of the second Christiansborg (1828-84) was reused. The building houses the Danish parliament, Supreme Court, the Prime Minister's Office and royal reception rooms.
The extension to the Royal Danish Library, known as the black diamond, was built in 1995-99 by the architectural firm Schmidt Hammer Lassen. It was the first in a series of new cultural buildings on the city's waterfront. There are also two museums in the building as well an auditorium.
The Copenhagen Opera House was built in 2001-04 to a design by the architect Henning Larsen. The house was donated to the state by the A.P. Møller and Chastine Mc-Kinney Møller foundation. At its location on Holmen island, it completes the Amalienborg-axis.
The Royal Danish Playhouse was completed in 2007, after a competition was won by architects Lundgaard and Tranberg in 2002. The new theatre includes three separate stages and supplements the existing venue of the Royal Theatre on Kongens Nytorv.