jueves, 8 de septiembre de 2016

Antwerp


Het Steen is considered the oldest building in Antwerpen and was originally built around 1200-25, om the site of an earlier defensive structure first built in the ninth century. However, the upper part of the building, which is easily distinguishable by its lighter sandstone colour, is from 1590. The design is attributed to Domien de Waghemakere and Rombout Keldermans. All the adjoining streets and houses, including the city's oldest church, were demolished in the 1880s as the quays to the river were straightened. The fortress was also threatened with demolition at one point. A neo-gothic wing was added in 1889-90 and various other restorations and alterations were made, though some of this was removed in 1958. The 16th century gate was rebuilt in 1963. The building served as a prison from 1303 to 1827 and became a museum in 1864. 
   

The Cathedral of Our Lady is the largest gothic church in the Low Countries and was primarily built in the period 1352-1521. Work first began on the choir, which was finally vaulted in 1411 after political upheavals had forced a standstill for 22 years. The original architect was possible Jacob van Tienen. Pieter Appelmans took over from 1419 and was later succeeded by Jan Tac and Everaert Spoorwater, who extended the original design in 1454-69. The south aisle was completed in 1469 and was consecrated for temporary use in 1469 before church service was moved to the choir in 1481. The last remnant of the previous 12-century church was demolished in 1485. Herman de Waghemakere took over as architect in 1473 and the central part of the west front was completed in 1492 before his son Domien completed the northern tower 1521. A plan to expand the choir was abandoned in 1537 and work on the completion of the southern tower was never resumed after it stopped in 1475. The onion cupola was added in 1535 and the transepts were vaulted in stone in 1610-17. New portals were added during this period but the transepts were restored to gothic style in the 19th century. The interior is largely baroque due to the iconoclasm of the Calvinists. The earliest religious building on the site was a chapel from the ninth century. 


It took over 150 years to complete Sint-Jacobskerk, though the west tower was mostly finished in the first building phase of 1491-1553. The design is probably by Herman Waghemakere the Elder and his sons Herman and Domien, followed after 1525 by Rombout Keldermans. The plan was originally to build the tallest tower in Antwerp, but the project was held up due to a lack of funds. Two building phases followed: in 1552-66, with the completion of the transepts, and in 1602-56, with the completion of the choir, chapels and aisles.  The site was originally located just outside the city walls and became a popular stop on the pilgrim route to Santiago de Compostela. A chapel had been built in 1404-13, which became an independent parish in 1477. 


The construction of Sint-Andrieskerk was begun by Augustine friars in the early 16th century to replace a chapel from 1513-14. The land was confiscated due to the accusation of protestant sympathies and the church became a parish in 1529. The construction of the tower began in 1541 and the nave was completed around 1568. A dividing wall was built to separate between Calvinists and Catholics in 1579, though this was torn down in 1585, when the Spanish restored the supremacy of Catholicism. Transepts and choir were only completed in 1663. A new portal was added to the south transept in 1730 and the tower collapsed in 1755. A new tower was subsequently completed to a design by Engelbert Baets.


The Antwerp town hall was built in 1561-64 to a design by a team of architects, though it's primarily attributed to the sculptor Cornelis Floris de Vriendt. Other names include Loys de Foys, Nicolo Scarini and Willem Paludanus. The city had previously chosen a gothic design by Domien de Waghemakere in 1541, but the building materials for this project were eventually diverted to the city's defences instead. The new town hall was destroyed during the Spanish sack of 1576 and had to be rebuilt three years later.


The buildings on the south-side of Helige Geeststraat are typical examples of the Flemish renaissance style in brick-and-sandstone. They are dated by the anchors on the facades to the period 1578-84, They are now part of the museum Plantin-Moretus, which is dedicated to the history of the printing press in the city.


The guildhalls of Grote Markt are mostly reconstructions, based on paintings and old documents of the houses as built in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. The first reconstruction was completed in 1893 (Grote Markt 7) by architect Frans van Dijck and is considered the most authentic, along with Grote Markt 5. It is topped with a statue of St George by Jef Lambeaux, who also designed the Brabo fountain from 1887. More reconstructions followed on the corner of Braderijstraat in 1900 by Eugene Geefs. This house (Grote Markt 3) only became a corner building when the street was widened in 1886-87. Frans van Dijck completed the reconstructions of Grote Markt 9 and 11 in 1904 and 1906, while Grote Markt 5 is by Leonard Blomme and was finished in 1907. The facades of the two remaining houses on the corner of Wisselstraat were only completed in 1947-49, by Henri van Dijck.


The Jesuit church, originally dedicated to St Ignatius, was built in 1615-21 to a design by Francois d'Aguilon and Pieter Huyssens. The adjoining buildings were completed in 1626. The vault of the church was originally decorated with paintings by Peter Paul Rubens but this was destroyed by a fire in 1718. The Jesuit order was suppressed in 1773 and the church was closed before being rededicated to St Charles Borromeo and becoming a parish in 1803.


Paleis op de Meir was built in 1745-48 as a merchant's palace by architect Jan Pieter van Baurscheidt the younger. It was acquired by Napoleon during the French occupation and furnished to become a royal palace, but was first used by the monarchs of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and after 1830 by the monarchs of the Kingdom of Belgium. The royal family donated the residence to the state in 1969 and it has since mostly housed various museums. The building on the right was built in 1908 by architect Emile Thielens for Banque de Reports.


The National Bank of Antwerpen was built in 1874-78 as branch to the central bank of Belgium. The architect was Henri Beyaert, who had already built the headquarters in Brussels in collaboration with Wijnand Janssens. The city walls had been demolished in 1866 and a plot was found in 1871 on the vacant land along the new boulevard. The Antwerpen branch was closed in 2013 and the building was offered for sale.


The Royal Atheneum on Franklin Rooseveltplaats was built in 1882-84 to a design by architect Pieter Dens and Ferdinand Truyman. The building was almost completely destroyed in a fire in 2004 and was reopened after extensive rebuilding in 2014. The institution was first founded by Napoleon in 1807 as the city's first public school and was previously housed on Sint-Jacobsmaarkt.


The town hall of the previously independent municipality of Borgerhout was built in 1886-89 to a design by brothers Leonard and Henri Blomme. Borgerhout became part of Antwerp in 1983 and the town hall is now referred to as a district house.


The Royal Museum of Fine Arts was built in 1884-94 to a design by architects Jacob Winders and Frans van Dijk. The institution was originally founded in 1806 by Napoleon, when a collection was made from the art taken from the city's churches and other buildings. The collection was previously housed in a monastery but a decision was made to build a new museum after a fire threatened to destroy it in 1873. The museum was hit by a bomb in 1944 and subsequently restored.


The pilot office of the port of Antwerp was built in 1892-95 to a design by architects Hendrik Kennes and Ferdinand Truyman. A competition was held in 1886 but none of the winning projects were realised due to public protests. The issue was subsequently solved in 1890. City architect Gustave Royers added a smaller building to the south in 1899 and later structures are from 1937-57. A former ministry houses from 1863 by architect Charles Dujardin stands behind the pilot office.


The former dairy building of Antwerp Zoo was built in 1898 to a design by architects Emile Thielens and Emil van Averbeke. It was originally used as a distribution hub for the milk produced by the zoo's cows but later came used for storage before it was converted into a planetarium in 1973. It's now an education centre.



The buildings of the residential street Cogels-Osylei in the district of Zurenborg were built between 1894 to 1908. The development was led by a company called Societe Anonyme, which had originally been set up to to develop the farmland of the southeastern fringes of the city into industrial estates, but which changed its business model to focus on high-end residential development in 1886. All buildings on the Ronde Plein, which is located halfway up the street, were designed by Ernest Dieltiens and built in 1897-99.


The building, which now houses the department store Galleria Inno, was built in 1900-01 to a design by architect Joseph Hertogs. The German merchant Leonhard Tietz had already opened a store in the city, on Melkmarkt, in 1897, which continued as a branch until 1907. The new department store on the Meir soon proved too small and Tietz began to rent premises in the adjacent corner building, which had been built in 1903 by architect Willem van Oenen for the electrical store Moyson.


The three art nouveau houses on the corner of Schilderstraat and Plaatsnijdersstraat were built in 1901 to a design by architect Frans Smet-Verhas. The construction was financed by a wealthy shipbuilder, which is why the corner balcony is in the shape of a boat. There were originally four houses but one was rebuilt in 1964. The architect designed similar facades for houses in Oudekerkstraat and Lange van Ruusbroecstraat.


The short street between the Meir and Teniersplaats has been named Leysstraat since 1867. It was previously a little ally known as Meirsteeg but was widened in 1855 to serve as part of a thoroughfare to the central station. It was widened again in 1898 and an effort was made to harmonise the style of the new commercial buildings. Most on the southern side were built in 1899-1900 to designs by architects JB Veerecken, Emile Thielens, Louis Gife and Floris Verbraeken, though the corner building on the right was completed in 1904 by Willem van Oenen.


The near-identical buildings Leysstraat 28-32 and 27-29 on Teniersplaats were completed in 1901 and 1904 to designs by architects Ernest Dieltiens and H.F van Dijk. The latter is the former Hotel Metropole.


Antwerpen-Centraal railway station was built in 1895-1905 to a design by architect Louis Delacenserie. Six of the eight towers were demolished in the 1950s but these were reconstructed in 2009.  The glass vault of the viaduct was designed by Jan van Asperen. The previous station was a wooden structure from 1854. The buildings on the right are from 1903 by architects Emile Thielens and Emiel van Averbeke.


This Venetian-inspired Scaldis complex on Gogels-Osylei, was begun in 1903 to a design by Frans van Dijk. It consists of four townhouses and is similar in composition to the earlier Apollo complex further up the street, from 1894 by Ernest Stordiau. The names Scaldis is Latin for the river Scheldt. The building on its left is from 1905 by architect Fr. Reusens.


The Vlaamse Opera was built in 1904-07 to a design by architects Alexis van Mechelen and Emiel van Averbeke. It was originally established in 1893 as the Dutch-speaking counterpoint to the royal theatre, which was completed by Pierre Bourla in 1834, where performances continued in French until 1933. The earliest performances was in a theatre from 1869-73 to design by Peter Diens, which was demolished in the 1960s. The new opera replaced a market hall known as Halles Centrales from 1892 by Ernest Dieltens. The building on the left is an extension from 1907-09, while the tower on the right is Antwerp Tower, completed in 1974 by Joseph Fuyen and Guy Peeters.


Boerentoren, or KBC Tower, was built in 1929-32 to a design by Jan van Hoenacker and is considered one of Europe's earliest skyscrapers. Originally at 87.5 metres, it was just a few metres short of the Royal Liver Building in Liverpool and lost the title as tallest building on the continent to Terrazza Martini Tower in Genoa in 1940. The tower was extended to 95.8 metres in 1976 but is still shorter than the 123-metre tall spire of the cathedral.


Most of the facades on the southern side of Grote Markt are reconstructions from the period 1947-57 and 1967. The corner building furthest to the right is from 1886, while the corner building on Maalderijstraat is considered an authentic restoration of a facade from 1736, by architect Jan Peter van Baurscheidt. This row of houses originally belonged to a street called Maanstraat, but has had an uninterrupted view to square since the houses in front were demolished in 1714. The two facades on the very left of the image are considered authentic restorations of 17th- and 18th-century facades.


The Museum of Modern Art in Antwerp is housed in an old granary from 1922 built by Société Anonyme. The main facade by architect Camille Janssens consists of three blind arcades, which are still visible on Leuvenstraat. The granary was converted to a museum to a design by Michel Grandsard in 1985-87 and was extended by the same architect in 1992-93.


Cogels-Osylei 29A is a rare modern addition to the street and was built in 1989 to a design by Christine Conix. The site was cleared in 1933 when a previous building from 1897 was demolished, the adjoining building (left) was completed in 1949 in a pseudo-traditional style. The building on the right includes three town houses and was designed by Joseph Bascourt in 1894. Further on the left is the previously mentioned Apollo complex.


The new courthouse was built in 2001-05 to a design by architect Richard Rogers on the former site of a railway station, which was opened in 1903 but demolished in 1965 to make way for access roads to the Kennedy tunnel. Rogers' project won a competition in 1998-99 and a new tunnel was completed at the same time. The train station was a monumental building by brothers Jean Jules and Paul van Ysendijck, while the old courthouse from 1871-74, still stands on Britselei and was built by Francois and Louis Baeckelmans.


Museum Aan de Stroom (MAS), which means Museum by the River, was built in 2006-11 to a design by Neutelings Riedijk architects. The decision was made in 1998 to a build a new museum, with exhibitions focusing on the history of the city and its role as a major international port. The building is 60 metres tall and stands at the site of the former Hanzehuis, which was built in 1564-68 and was one of the city's most prominent renaissance buildings before it was destroyed in a fire in the 19th century.

miércoles, 17 de agosto de 2016

Gothenburg


At the heart of Gothenburg, dividing the old town into the former districts of Inom Vallgraven (left) and Nordstaden (right), runs Ostra Hamnkanalen. The canal was created in 1620-22, during which time the new city was founded in 1621. An earlier settlement in the vicinity had been named Gothenburg in 1603 but had been destroyed by Danish troops in 1611. The first bridge was completed in 1624, though the current (Fontanbron) was only opened for traffic in 1913. The central square was known as Stora torget before it was renamed Gustaf Adolfs torg in 1854. The city hall (right) was first completed in 1670-72 to a design by the architect Nicodemus Tessin the Elder, though the current facade is from 1814-17. It was completed by Jonas Hagberg on the basis of a design begun by Carl Wilhelm Carlberg. The tower at the back belongs to the German Church.


Kronhuset is one of the oldest buildings in Gothenburg and was built in 1643-54 as a storage and artillery building. The original design was probably by architect Simon de la Vallée, though construction was stopped already in the first year due to a lack of funds. It was only a single-storey building before work resumed in 1648. The Swedish Parliament met here in 1660. 


The German church of Gothenburg was originally a wooden building that had been moved from the previous settlement of Nya Lodose, which was first established in 1473. A new church in Dutch brick was completed in 1648, with a decorative spire that was added about 20 years later. This church was destroyed in a fire already in 1669. A new one was inaugurated in 1672 though the tower was only completed in 1698. A second fire struck in 1746, though some of the walls could this time be reused. The new tower was finally completed in 1783 to a design by Carl Fredrik Adelcrantz. The building on the left was completed in 1753 and was designed to harmonise with the neighbouring Swedish East India Company by the same architect, Bengt Wilhelm Carlberg.


The main church of Gothenburg was also originally in wood and was first built in 1621. A more permanent structure was built in 1633 and was designated Gothenburg cathedral in the 1680s. It was rebuilt after a fire in 1721 but burned to the ground again in 1802. The current cathedral was built in 1804-15 to a design by architect Carl Wilhelm Carlberg, though the tower was only in completed in 1827.


Several of the buildings near the cathedral were originally built in the early 19th century, including the house on the right, which has been dated to 1813. The black roof with dormer windows were apparently added during a rebuilding in 1914. The white building on the corner of Västra hamngatan was originally a two-storey house from 1810, with third storey and new facade dating to 1869. The red stone facade on the left is a later addition to the area. it was built by architect Isak Gustaf Claeson for Skånes Enskilda Bank in 1907.   


The exchange was built in 1844-40 to a design by the architect Pehr Johan Ekman. The first trade guild in Sweden had been established in Gothenburg in 1661 and a new organisation for the city's merchants was established in 1781. They initially met in the town hall before the purpose-built house was completed, replacing an aristocratic residence, known as Kaulbarska huset. The municipal building on the left was originally completed in 1759 after previous buildings burned in 1746 and 1758. The design was probably by Bengt Wilhelm Carlberg, though the top-storey was added during a rebuilding in 1823. Further left stands Wenngrenska huset, built as a residence in 1760, again by Bengt Wilhelm Carlberg, with a second storey added in 1820.


The city began to demolish its 17th-century bastions and walls in 1807 and new buildings were completed within the moat in the 1850s. Many of the new houses on Stora Nygatan were by German-born architect August Kruger, including the synagogue from 1855. It passes Bastionplatsen, which was named after one of the former bastions, Gustavus Magnus from 1686-93. Its most prominent building was completed in 1905-08 by architect Hans Hedlund. 


A green belt named Kungsparken was established on the opposite side of the moat, where a theatre was built in 1856-59 by architect Bror Carl Malmberg. Two previous theatres had been created in 1814-16 and 1819, but both went out of business fairly quickly. A listed company was created in 1855 to finance the new theatre and the site in Kungsparken was offered for free. The building on the left is from 1883 (or 1890), by architect Hans Hedlund, for Sweden's shipowner's association.


A competition was held in 1861 to arrive at a master plan to expand the city beyond the moat. Two proposals were chosen to form the basis of a plan that was finalised in 1866. Central in this plan was the boulevard Kungsportavenyn, which stretches for about 1,000 metres from the moat to Gotaplatsen, where most of the buildings were only completed in the 1920s and 1930s. Engelska kvarteret, or the English quarter, were the first buildings of Kungsportavenyn. These were terrace houses designed in 1872 by architects Johan August Westerberg and August Kruger.


The fish hall, generally known as the fish church due to its resemblance to a gothic cathedral, was completed in 1874 to a design by architect Victor von Gegerfelt. The idea to build a hall for the fish market, which had been moved from Gustaf Adolf Torg to Rosenlundkanalen in 1849, was first proposed in 1870. The building on its left is Rosenlundshuset from 1968-70. On the other side of the canal is the district Haga, which was established already in 1660. It became a working class district consisting mainly of wooden houses in the 19th century but was heavily rebuilt in the 20th century. The church is from 1856-59 by Adolf Edelsvard and the district also includes the 16th century fort Skansen Kronan.   


Handelsinstitutet was built in 1881-82 to a design by architect Adrian Crispin Peterson. The school had been founded in 1826 as the first business college in Sweden. It moved to a new building in 1915 and the building is now in use by Gustaviskolan, an elementary school.


The triangular square Vasaplatsen is one of the main features of the 1866 masterplan. A few wooden houses were first cleared, the square was named in 1882, the fountain was completed in 1897 and mansion blocks sprung up around it in the period 1890-1905. Some of the names associated with the area are architects Johan August Westerberg, Hjalmar Cornilsen, Hans Hedlund, Adrian Crispin Peterson, and his son Carl Crispin. To the south stands the main building of Gothenburg University, which was completed in Vasaparken in 1907 by architects Ernst Torulf and Erik Hahr.


The building on the corner of Sodra Larmgatan and Magasinsgatan was built in 1902-04 to a design by architect Isak Gustaf Clason, though the plan is signed Ernst Kruger. It was built for wine merchant C. G. Platin. The two lower stories were for storage, shops and offices, while the upper stories were originally flats. On the left are the old artillery stables from 1835, where Goteborgs  Hyrverksaktiebolag, which served the city with horse-drawn taxis, built an iron shed in 1898. The building on the right is from 1935, by architect T. Svanberg, reclad in 1966.


A number of banks were built in the late 19th and early 20th centuries on Sodra Hamngatan, after the Swedish central bank built its Gothenburg branch here in 1886, to a design by architect Viktor Adler. The building on the left was built for Goteborgs Kopmansbank in 1891 by architect K Johnson, the pedimented facade is by Ernst Kruger and was built for Goteborgs handelsbank in 1904-05, while the building in between was added for Nordiska Handelsbank in 1921, by architects Arvid Fuhre and Conny Nyquist. Furthest to the right can also be seen Skandiahuset from 1909-11, built for the insurance company Skandia, by architect Gustav Wickman. The modern facade is from 1980 and is by White arkitekter, replacing five merchant houses from the early 19th century. The house under renovation is Chalmerska huset from 1807.


Esperantoplatsen was named in 1954 and consists mainly of old warehouses and former industrial buildings. The square also features remains of the old fortifications of Gothenburg, which were begun in 1624 and mostly demolished in 1807-17. The surviving section was part of the Carolus Rex bastion, one of the 13 polygonal bastions that surrounded the city.  Most of the buildings in this western section of the old town are from the early 20th century due to the hilly topography, which delayed urbanisation here. The narrow stretch between the hills Otterhallan and Kungshojd is now part of Kungsgatan and was one of the entrances to the city, via the now-demolished Karlsporten. 


The 1866 masterplan essentially covered the districts of Vasastaden and Lorensberg, which were mostly built up between 1870 and 1920. Vasastaden was given its own parish when the Vasa church was completed in 1905-09, to a design by architect Yngve Rasmussen. A new plan for the completion of Kungsportavenyn and the villa area of Lorensberg was finalised in 1910 and realised by 1934.


The general post office was built in 1917-25 to a design by architect Ernst Torulf, and was considered the most expensive building in Sweden at the time. It was turned into a hotel and conference facility, with the addition of a modern tower, in 2012. The architects behind the conversion were Semrén and Månsson.  

  
   Lilla Bomman is an 86-metre tower built in 1986-89 to a design by architect Ralph Erskine, in collaboration with White Arkitekter. It was originally built as the head office in Gothenburg for the construction company Skanska but is now owned by Vasakronan AB. The tower is often known by its nickname, the lipstick.


Gothia Towers are three high-rises built between 1984 and 2014. The original tower was 63 metres tall and was increased to 82 metres in 2012-2013. The second tower was completed in 2001 at a height of 77 metres, while the construction of the third tower began in 2012. It reaches 100 metres and is currently the city's tallest habitable building. The design of the latest development of the complex was by White arkitekter. A fourth tower is also being planned. 


The Gothenburg Opera was built in 1991-94 to a design by architect Jan Izikowitz of architects Lund & Valentin. A number of different sites had been debated since the 1960s and a decision had been made in 1985 to build at Gamla Ullevi. A design by architect Carl Nyrén was recommended in 1986 and was supposedly quite similar to the opera that was finally built by Izikowitz. 

sábado, 28 de mayo de 2016

Waterloo Bridge


This photo from Waterloo Bridge was taken on 4 April 2009 and though few new towers had emerged on the skyline since the completion of the Gherkin (30 St Mary Axe) by Norman Foster in 2003, a number of high-rises from the 60s and 70s had recently been demolished to pave the way for a new generation of towers. The Willis Building in Lime Street was completed by the same architect in 2008 and the concrete-clad Stock Exchange Tower by Trollope and Colls from 1972 was refaced with  a glass curtain wall in the same year. Towering above the Stock Exchange Tower is Tower 42 from 1971-80 by Richard Seifert. This was the tallest building in London for 10 years until the completion of One Canada Square at Canary Wharf in 1990, seen in the distance. The tower on the other side of the river was also by Seifert and completed in 1972 and was still known as King's Reach Tower in 2009.


The next photo was taken in 2011, shortly after the completion of Heron Tower, where construction had been going on since 2007. The tower was originally intended at the same height as Tower 42, at 183 metres, and the two towers almost appear as twins from this angle despite the Heron Tower eventually being extended to 202 metres to the roof and 230 metres to the tip of the antenna. The architects were Kohn Pedersen Fox.

Just to the left of King's Reach Tower can be seen the rising core of what was to become the tallest building in London. The Shard or London Bridge Tower had been under construction since March 2009.


The Shard was becoming increasingly visible on the skyline by 15 August 2011, while the demolition of Bucklersbury House from 1954-58 by architects Owen-Campbell Jones and Sons opened up a better view of the Rothschild Building by Rem Koolhaas, which was completed in 2010. Also part of this cluster of mini-towers are the Willis Building and the former headquarters of Barclays Bank (1990-94) by GMW architects.


The Shard was nearing completion by early 2012 while a new tower was already making its mark on the skyline. Construction of 20 Fenchurch Street, nicknamed the Walkie Talkie, had begun in January 2009 to a design by architect Rafael Vinoly. It replaced a 91-metre tower from 1968 by William Rogers, which had been demolished in 2008.


The 306-metre Shard was completed in July 2012, roughly 12 years after entrepreneur Irvine Sellar met with architect Renzo Piano to discuss the redevelopment of the site, then occupied by the high-rise Southwark Towers from 1975. By 3 November 2012, a new tower was also becoming visible as part of the City cluster, the Cheesegrater.


The Cheesegrater, also known as 122 Leadenhall Street, had just been completed when this photo was taken on 12 July 2014, only two months after the completion of the Walkie Talkie. The former was designed by Rogers Stirk Harbour and Partners and replaced a previous high-rise from 1969, which had been demolished in 2008. The King's Reach Tower had been renamed the South Bank Tower in 2013 and plans were approved to extend the tower from 111 metres to 155 to a new design by Kohn Pedersen Fox.


The revamp of the South Bank Tower had been completed in 2015, while the new tower 1 Blackfriars was beginning to impact the skyline south of the river when this photo was taken on 16 May 2016. Designed by SimpsonHaugh and Partners, the tower is scheduled for completion in 2018, at a height of 163 metres. The 90-metre 240 Blackfriars was completed across the road in 2014 by architects Allford Hall Monaghan Morris.