domingo, 6 de diciembre de 2015

English palaces, mansions and stately homes


Knole House was originally built in 1456-86 for the archbishop of Canterbury on the site of a previous house. Works to extend the building continued into the 16th century, including the main facade. It was seized from the archbishops by Henry VIII, as was Otford Palace, and has been the seat of the earls and dukes of Dorset since 1603.  


Charlton House was built in 1607-12 for Adam Newton, Dean of Durham and tutor at the royal household. The architect is assumed to have been John Thorpe. A wing was added in 1877 by Norman Shaw and the chapel wing was rebuilt in non-matching bricks after bomb damage during WWII.


Kew Palace was originally built in 1631 as a private house for the Samuel Fortrey, but became a royal residence in 1734 though the crown only bought it in 1781, it previously being held on a lease. Plans for a large Palladian palace were presented in 1735 by William Kent but a new palace was only begun in 1802 to a design by James Wyatt. This was a castle-like building, which was never much liked and was demolished already in 1828.


Eltham Lodge, or the royal manor of Eltham, was built in 1663-64 to a design by the architect Hugh May in the style of Dutch classicism, such as in the example of the Mauritshuis at the Hague. The same architect also designed Cornbury House in Oxfordshire, in a similar style but larger and dressed in stone, and Berkeley House in Piccadilly. The latter was destroyed in a fire as early as 1733, while May's work at Cassiobury House in Hertfordshire has also been lost.


Ham House was originally built in 1610 for Thomas Vavasour, though the south front is largely the result of a rebuilding in the 1670s. The architect behind the original H-shaped plan was Robert Smythson.


Appuldurcombe House was begun in 1702 by architect John James on the site of a previous Tudor house but was still unfinished when the owner Robert Worsley died in 1747. The house was further extended in 1770s but has been an empty shell since WWII, due to a mine dropped close to it in 1943. The property began as a priory in 1100.  


Blenheim Palace was begun in 1705 and completed around 1722 as a reward to John Churchill, the duke of Marlborough, for his efforts in the War of the Spanish Succession and more specifically the battle of Blenheim. The duke choose John Vanbrugh as the architect, but Vanbrugh was latter banned from the site by Churchill's wife, who had always preferred Christopher Wren as architect and largely managed the project in her husband's stead. The work was carried on by Vanbrugh's associate Nicholas Hawksmoor but was beset by funding problems. Royal contributions had ceased in 1712, at which point the relations with the queen had deteriorated so much that the duke and duchess were forced into a two-year exile. Work was resumed in 1716 but was completed at the Marlboroughs' own expense.


The palatial front of Stoneleigh abbey was built in 1714-26 to a design by the architect Francis Smith.   The older buildings are from the second half of the 16th century, though the gatehouse is from the 14th century when the property was still an abbey. The Cistercian abbey was originally founded in 1154 but became a private estate after the dissolution of the monasteries under Henry VIII.


Marble Hill House was built in 1724-29 to a design by Roger Morris and the amateur architect Henry Herbert, Earl of Pembroke. The design is supposedly based on Palladio's Villa Cornaro and also served as model for plantation houses in the American colonies.


Moor Park Mansion was originally built in 1678-79, but the present facade is from 1720s by Giacomo Leoni, with assistance from the painter James Thornhill. The main body of the building was originally linked to service buildings on either side via by curved colonnades but this feature was removed in 1785.    


Holkham Hall was built in 1734-65 to a design by architect William Kent, working in cooperation with the aristocratic architecture enthusiasts: the earl of Burlington and Thomas Coke, who was made earl of Leicester in 1744. The land had been acquired by the Coke family bit by bit in the 17th century. Thomas Coke inherited it in 1718 but his plans to create a classical monument was delayed in the 1720s due his financial losses from the South Sea Bubble. 


Osterley House was originally an Elizabethan mansion from the 1570s that was remodelled by the architect Robert Adam in the 1760s. 


Althorp House was first built in 1508 and had by 1586 been extended to its current shape. It may have been replaced with a new building in the 17th-century and is depicted in 1677 as baroque design in red brick. The current facade is from 1788 by the architect Henry Holland, who encased the building in grey tiles and added four giant pilasters to the front. The house is famous as the childhood home of Princess Diana.

sábado, 28 de noviembre de 2015

La Defense

La Defense is named after a statue erected in 1883 but is now a business district consisting mostly of modern high-rise buildings. The statue was sculpted by Louis-Ernest Barrias in honour of the soldiers who defended Paris during the Franco-Prussian war in 1870. It previously stood at the centre of the rond-point de Courbevoie, a roundabout which terminated the historic axis of Paris. The statue was removed in 1964 and was placed at its current location in 1983.   

At the start of the 1950s, the rond-point de Courbevoie was still surrounded by old houses and factories, which neighboured shantytowns and the odd farm. Various ideas had been presented for the redevelopment of the area but things first started to move with the construction of a new exhibition centre in 1956-58, which would later become the Centre for New Industries and Technologies (CNIT). The architects behind the project were Robert Camelot, Jean de Mailly and Bernhard Zehrfuss, as well as engineers Jean Prouvé and Nicolas Esquillan. 
The interior structure was replaced during refurbishments in 1988 and 2009. The first new office building in the area, Tour Esso, was completed in 1964 but was demolished in 1993 and replaced with Coeur Defense in 2001 (right).


The public body EPAD was created in 1958 to develop a master plan for the area and to manage the acquisition of land and the process of relocation of previous inhabitants. The plan was adopted in 1964, and included a series of towers, which were to measure 42x24 metres in plan and reach about 100 metres in height. The first of these towers, originally named Tour Nobel, was completed in 1966 to a design by architects Jean de Mailly and Jacques Depussé. The tower is 109 metres and has since bee renamed Initiale and RTE-Nexity. 

The residential block on the right is the oldest of its kind in La Defense and was completed in 1957, one year before CNIT, and was also by architect Jean de Mailly. It originally consisted of four slabs surmounted on an office block in an E-shape, but this has since been reduced to an L-shape with the removal of two of the slabs. 


The second tower, originally named Tour Aquitaine (right), was completed in 1967 to a design by brothers Luc and Xavier Arsene-Henry, and Bernard Schoeller; but the original facade was replaced in 2014. This makes Tour Europe, from 1969, the second oldest high-rise design in La Defense. It is the first of a series of towers by the the team of architects Delb, Chesneau and Verola.

The EPAD masterplan also included low-rise residential units with central courtyards, such as the one built in front of Tour Europe in 1969 by architects Camelot and Finelli.


Architects Delb, Chesneau, Verola and Lalande completed a second tower in 1970, known as Tour Atlantique. It was joined by Tour Credit Lyonnais (right) in 1971. This was originally a design by Dubuisson and Jausserand but the facade was replaced and the structure was expanded during a refurbishment in 2002-07 by Valode and Pistre.  The tower is now known as Tour Opus 12.


Two more towers were completed in 1971. Tour Aurore was designed by architects Claude Damery, Pierre Vetter and Gilbert Weil, but is now slated for demolition. The plan is to replace it with a 202-metre tower dubbed Tour Air2. Tour CGI, originally known as Tour EDF-GDF, was a design by by architects Gravereaux, Saubet, Arsac and Cassagne but its current facade is from 2002-03 by Kohn Pedersen Fox. The tower on the right is Tour Manhattan from 1975, by Michel Hebert and Michel Proux. Several residential units were built in front of these towers, including the two concrete buildings known collectively as Residence Vision 80. This consists of a mid-rise block reaching 47 metres in height and a lower block stretching 120 metres long. They were completed in 1973 after a competition held by EPAD was won by the architect Jean Pierre Jouve. A third concrete block was built at the foot of Tour Aurore in 1978, by Alberto Penso.  


EPAD came under increasing pressure to allow taller buildings in the early 1970s. The state had made huge investments in infrastructure; including new roads, an RER express train station and an elevated pedestrian plaza; and needed to attract higher prices for the land it sold off to private investors. A new masterplan was therefore adopted in 1972, ushering in a second generation of towers. After completing Tour Atlantique in 1970; architects Delb, Chesnau, Verola and Lalande designed Tour Franklin in 1972 and Tour Winterthur in 1973. 

The Y-shaped building in front of Winterthur was only completed in 1983 by Jean Balladur and occupies a space which in 2008 was considered for a new 297-metre tall building by Norman Foster.


The first towers of the second generation only reached to 120 metres but the revised masterplan actually allowed towers of up to 200 metres, presenting opportunities for taller buildings by insurance companies Gan and UAP. The UAP tower by Pierre Dufau originally stretched to 159 metres before it was rebuilt as the 225-metre Tour First in 2011. Tour Gan by Harrison & Abramovitz reached 179 metres to the roof and caused a quite stir during construction in 1972-74 due to its high visibility from central Paris.   


Built during the same period as the controversial Tour Gan, though at a further distance from the city, Tour Fiat was also completed in 1974, to a design by architects Roger Sabot and Francois Jullien. Its planned twin tower was cancelled due to the oil crisis and the second tower was only completed in 1985 to a different design. This time Roger Sabot teamed up with WZMH architects.  The two towers are now known as Tour Areva and Tour Total and are with their 184 and 187 metres still among the tallest in La Defense.


The idea of closing off the historic axis of Paris was first suggested in 1969 by architect Leoh Ming Pei and competitions were organised in the early and late 1970s, but it was only in 1982 that a definite project was chosen. President Mitterrand had called for a building of monumental character and the design by Otto von Spreckelsen and engineer Erik Reitzel was conceived as a modern take on the triumphal arch. Construction began in 1985 and was completed in 1989, though Spreckelsen resigned in 1986 and was suceeded by Paul Andreu. 

On the site opposite CNIT, it was decided to build a shopping centre in 1972, which was finally inaugurated as Les Quatre Temps in 1981 (left). Originating with a project by Leoh Ming Pei, which also featured a tower at the centre of the historic axis, the final design was by architects Lagneau and Dimitrijevic.


The twin towers of Chassagne and Alicante were completed in 1995, to a design by architects Andrault, Parat and Ayoub. The towers dominate a whole new section of La Defense created in the 1990s, which was originally knows as quartier Valmy but is now so dominated by the bank Société Générale that its now mostly known under that name. The bank, which had previously had its offices in Tour Ariane from 1975, built a third tower in 2008 to a design by architect Christian Portzamparc. 


The view from the steps of the Grande Arche is dominated by two towers, both completed in 2001. Coeur Defense (left) was designed by architect Jean-Paul Viguier and replaced Tour Esso, while Tour EDF (left) is by by Pei Cobb Freed and partners. The smaller tower to the left of EDF is of the first generation and was originally built in 1973 as a twin to Tour Atlantique but the facade was redesigned in 2004.


The towers Tour Egée and Tour Adria were built in 1999-2002 by architects Michel Andrault and Nicolas Ayoub. They are located in Faubourg de l'Arche, a part of La Defense that only began to be cleared for construction in 1988. The bridge linking the development to the rest of La Defense was completed in 1999. 


The four last buildings of Faubourg de l'Arche were built in 2005-2010, including Tour T1 by architects Valode and Piste. The 185-metre skyscraper is the third tallest in La Defense and has been entirely occupied by the energy company Engie (previously GDF Suez) since 2010. On its right, Tour Esplanade, also known as Tour Sequoia, was built in 1989-90 by architects Ayoub, Andrault and Parat.


Tour UAP from 1974 was transformed into Tour First in 2007-2011 by architects Kohn, Pedersen and Fox; making it the tallest building in La Defense, at 231 metres including the antenna. Tour D2 (right) is one of the most recent towers in La Defense, completed in 2015 by architects Anthony Bechu and Tom Sheehan, at 171 metres. It replaced a previous building known as Tour Veritas, which was demolished in 2011.   


Tour Carpe Diem was built in 2010-13 to a design by architect Robert Stern. It has carried the logo of the Thales Group since January 2015 and the company occupies the top seven floors of the building. At a height of 162 metres, it was the first project to be completed as part of the La Defense renewal plan adopted in 2006. Just peaking out above Tour Europe to the left of Carpe Diem can be seen Tour CBX by Kohn Pedersen Fox from 2005.    


Tour Majunga was built in 2011-14 to a design by architect Jean-Paul Viguier after the group Unibail-Rodamco acquired the site in 2006.

On its right can be seen the 152-metre Tour Ariane from 1975 by architects Mailly and Zammit and on its left Tour Michelet (Total) from 1985.  

miércoles, 25 de noviembre de 2015

Cambridge



The church of the Holy Sepulchre or Round Church was originally built around 1130 by the fraternity of the Holy Sepulchre. It became a parish church in the 13th century and several changes to the structure were made. A gothic bell-storey was built in the 15th century and the original windows were replaced. These elements were removed during a restoration by Anthony Salvin in the 19th century and the upper storey is an interpretation of how the original church may have looked. It is one of five surviving medieval round churches in England, most of which are associated with the Knights Templar and Hospitaller.


The main gate of Queens' college was built in 1448-49 and is considered the oldest of its kind in Cambridge. King Edward's Tower at Trinity College from 1426 has been moved and altered while only the ground floor of the gatehouse at King's college was built in 1441, the rest was completed in the 19th century. It has been suggested that the architect of Queen's college was Reginald Ely. A second court was created in the second half of the century, while later buildings were added over the succeeding centuries. The college spans the river via the famous mathematical bridge.


The King's College Chapel was built in stages between 1446 to 1515, though the stained glass was only completed in 1531 and the rood screen, considered one of the earliest examples of renaissance design in England, was finished in 1536. The architect is unknown but possible suggestions include Reginald Ely or Nicholas Close. The stone vault (1512-1515), which replaced a timber roof, is by master mason John Wastell. 


The Gate of Honour at Gonville and Caius College is one of three gates built by John Caius after he refounded the 14th century Gonville Hall in 1565. The gates of Humility and Virtue were completed within Caius' lifetime, while the Gate of Honour was finished in the two years following his death in 1573. The design is in part attributed to Caius himself, though it is known that he hired an architect by the name Theodore Haveus or De Have.


The great gate of St John's College was completed in 1516 and is thought to be the design of William Swayne, a master mason who had been employed at King's College chapel. A second and similar gate tower was built in 1599-1602 between the second and third courts of the college. At the back can be seen the chapel of St John's college, which replaced a 13th century chapel in 1866-69. It has the tallest tower in Cambridge and was designed by architect George Gilbert Scott. The chapel of Trinity College is also partially visible on the left, built in 1555-67. Opposite the great gate stands the Divinity School from 1879 by Basil Champneys, embellished in the 1890s. 


The chapel of Pembroke college is thought to be the first building designed by Christopher Wren, was commissioned by his bishop uncle Matthew Wren and built in 1663-65. It is the earliest building in Cambridge without any gothic details and is roughly contemporary with Wren's Sheldonian Theatre in Oxford. The shape and size of the chapel seems to draw inspiration from Inigo Jones' chapel at St. James' Palace while the windows are similar to Jones' design for the later demolished chapel at Somerset House. Wren's chapel was extended by George Gilbert Scott in 1878. The building on the right was built in 1875-77 as one of the Red Buildings designed by Alfred Waterhouse. One the opposite side stands the west range of the original court, built in the 14th century and featuring the oldest gatehouse in Cambridge.


Wren's second chapel at Cambridge was built in 1677 for Emmanuel College. The college had been founded in 1584 on the site of a Dominican friary, which already included a chapel though it was the friars' dining hall that was initially used. The dining hall turned chapel became a library after 1677 and remained as such until 1930. The other buildings around the front court have changed significantly since the completion of the chapel. The north range (left) is part of the founder's building from 1584-89 but was heavily remodelled in 1760-64 and the oriel window is from 1876, added by architect Arthur Blomfield. The south range was rebuilt as the Westmoreland Building in 1719-22.


The Wren Library was built in 1676-95 according to a design by Christopher Wren for Trinity College. The library forms the west range of Neville's court, which had been completed in 1612. The gate of the wall that previously closed off the courtyard to the river now stands as the college entrance from Trinity Lane. The north and south sides of the existing courtyard were extended to reach the new library building. The original gables of the these older buildings were removed during a rebuilding and remodelling of Neville's Court in the 18th century.


Senate House was built in 1722-30, supposedly to a design by James Gibbs, though the result is not typical of the architect and may have been based on a concept by James Burrough. The intention was to build an open quadrangle consisting of three wings, though only one was actually built. The towered building on the right is the Waterhouse Building of Gonville and Caius College from 1870, which was built as part of the modernisation of the Tree Court and has been named after the architect Alfred Waterhouse.


The Gibbs Building of King's College was completed in 1729 and is named after its architect, James Gibbs. It is one of three wings, which were intended to form a closed courtyard with King's College Chapel. The other two wings designed by Gibbs were not completed due to a lack of funds and the project was not continued until 1828 when Front Court was completed by William Wilkins in neo-gothic style.


Trinity's College's New Court was completed in 1825 to a neo-gothic design by William Wilkins. The additional court is located to the south of Neville's Court and was built to accommodate the increasing rate of incoming students.


The Bridge of Sighs was built in 1831 to a design by architect Henry Hutchinson, connecting the 17th-century Third Court to the 19th-century New Court, both of which belong to St John's College. Despite the name, there is no resemblance to the Bridge of Sighs in Venice, unlike the namesake in Oxford which at least looks Venetian in inspiration. Hutchinson also co-designed New Court (1826-31) with Thomas Rickman.


The design for the Fitzwilliam Museum was chosen in an open competition won by George Basevi in 1835. Work began two years later and continued after the architect's death by Charles Robert Cockerell in 1845-63. Funds ran out and the project came to a standstill but was finally completed by Edward Barry in 1870-75. Both succeeding architects mostly kept to Basevi's basic design. An extension was added in 1931. 


The buildings at the north corners of the Downing College quadrangle were built in 1929-32 by architect Herbert Baker. The design is similar to the west and east ranges, which were built by William Wilkins in 1807-11 and 1818-21, though the east range was only fully completed in 1876 by E. M. Barry. The style was continued with the completion of the northern range between Baker's corner-buildings in 1950-53. Additional buildings, still in classical design, were built in 1987-93 by Quinlan Terry.

domingo, 4 de octubre de 2015

Bergen


St Mary's is the oldest remaining church in Bergen, its date of construction estimated to 1140-1180, though the gothic influences of the extended choir and the taller towers of west front is from after a fire in 1248. The church was used by the German community of Bergen from 1408 and though it became a normal parish church in 1874, sermons were still held in German as late as after WWI. It is the only survivor of the twelve churches and three monasteries built in Bergen by the end of the 12th century.


Håkonshallen was built as a royal residence in the 13th century and was at least completed by 1261, when it was recorded as the location of a royal wedding. After centuries of neglect, its restoration began in 1873 and was completed in 1895. The explosion of 1944 created more damage, resulting in a second restoration campaign in 1955-61.   


The old town hall was originally a private residence built for the feudal lord Christopher Valkendorf in 1558. It became a public building in 1568, served a Bergen town hall until 1974 and is still used for meetings by the city's representatives. It has been damaged in several fires and various changes and additions to the facade have altered its appearance over time, in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries.  


Rosenkrantz Tower was built in the 1560s on the remains of a previous keep from the 1270s. It is named after Erik Rosenkrantz, who was the feudal lord of Bergenhus Len during the period of construction. It was built as a residence and as part of a military complex, but has in its history only been involved in a single military campaign, on the side of the Dutch in a naval battle against the English in 1665. The building on the left is one of a series of building added to the fortress in the early 18th century.


Erik Rosenkrantz also built a private residence on the opposite side of the bay, on Nordnes, partly by using stone from the cloister ruins of Munkeliv. The building has been damaged by several fires and the original gables were replaced with a hipped roof in 1702. 


The short side street named Forstandersmauet is thought to be the location of the oldest preserved wooden house in Bergen. At least the ground floor of the house in question is from the 16th century.


There has been a church on the site of Bergen cathedral since at least 1181, though the original church has been reduced to ruins on multiple occasions and the current west front, or at least its upper part, is from a rebuilding in the 1640s. Restoration was also undertaken after the fire of 1702 and the previous baroque interior was removed in favour of the medieval. The church belonged to a Franciscan cloister in the 13th century and became the city's cathedral in 1537 after Christ church was demolished in 1531.       


The water front of Bryggen is from 1702, when the previous medieval buildings were rebuilt after the most devastating fire in the city's history. The buildings at the far end were replaced with modern brick buildings in 1902-1908 by architect Jens Zetlitz Monrad Kielland, with the exception of the very far end, where the owner resisted modernisation. The latter has an annex from 1874-76 by architect Conrad Fredrik von der Lippe. There is also a modern hotel and museum inside the Bryggen area, built about 30 years after a fire in 1955 destroyed several older buildings. 


The Bergen Customs House was built in 1759-61 by architect Johan Joachim Reichborn, after the previous customs house was destroyed in a fire in 1756. Most of the water front of Nordnes was lost in this fire and it also resulted in the creation of the 15-metre wide street Tollbodallmenningen. The pediment is decorated with an unfinished relief decoration in marble, which was supposed to depict Mercuria, Justitia and the crown.  


Nykirken, the new church, was built in 1756-63 by Johan Joachim Reichborn, replacing a previous church from 1622 on the site of the old archbishop's residence. The church was rebuilt after a fire in 1801 and the explosion of 1944, after which Reichborn's design for the spire was finally realised. Most of the surrounding buildings are modern due to the explosion.   


The wooden houses on Sliberget are dated to the late 1700s and the street is first mentioned on a map from 1746. The houses have been protected since 1927 but three of them have been removed to Gamle Bergen Museum, an open-area museum featuring several reassembled wooden houses, most of which had been threatened with demolition. 


Klosteret is the name of a square on the ridge of Nordnes in Central Bergen. It is named after a Benedictine abbey founded about 1110, which became the seat of the bishop of Bergen after the reformation and the church was designated Bergen's cathedral. The entire complex burnt to the ground in 1536 and was not rebuilt. Some of these houses are said to have medieval basements.


The area along the southern slope of Nordnes, known as Nøstet, include a number of narrow alleys and tightly packed wooden houses. Most of the buildings are from the 18th and 19th centuries and the first effort to modernise the street grid only began in 1880. A plan was adopted to completely modernise the area in 1948 but this was never carried out. The name Strangehagen refers to Strange Jørgensen who founded a charitable institution in 1609 to provide accommodation for poor women. The original building disappeared in the fire of 1702 but a later building from 1751 still stands in nearby Klostergaten.     


The building that housed the Bergen branch of the Norwegian Bank was built in 1845 to a design by the architect Ole Peter Riis Høegh. An extension was considered in 1926 but was rejected in favour of preserving the existing building. 


The pedestrian section of Strandgaten differs from the rest of the street in the sense that it was untouched by the fire of 1916 and the explosion in 1944, and therefore has buildings dated to before the 20th century. It includes the Sundt department store, which was built in 1889 and extended in 1914. The department store first opened in 1845 and moved to a new-build in Torgallmenningen in 1938.  


The street Marken refers to an area, which in the middle ages belonged to Nonneseter cloister, and was named accordingly in 1856. The old street grid was long threatened with urban renewal, particularly after the new central train station was opened in 1913. A plan was adopted in 1908 and several of the properties had been acquired by the municipality already in the 19th century but the plan was never carried out. A decision to completely rebuild the area was adopted as late as 1964 but was abandoned in 1974.


The main body of the University Museum was built in 1863-65 to a design by the architect Johan Henrik Nebelong. The original proposals were by Christian Christie and Franz Schiertz but opinions from other architects were sought, a process which ended with Nebelong submitting his own plans.   The lateral wings were added in 1896-98 by Hans Jacob Sparre. Founded as Bergen Museum in 1826,  the institution became part of Bergen University when the university was created in 1946. 


Known as the town's bazar when it opened in 1877, the market building on Vetrlidsallmenningen was designed by architect Conrad Fredrik von der Lippe, who also designed the buildings on the corner of Finnegårdsgaten (left) and Kong Oscars gate (right). In the back can be seen a mansion block from 1904 by architect Egill Reimers. 


The former headquarters of Bergen Kreditbank was originally built in 1876 by the architect Herman Schirmer, but was extended twice by later architects without breaking with the original style. The first extension was in 1897 by Adolf Fischer and the second in 1918 by Schak Bull. The bank was merged with Bergens Privatbank to create Bergen Bank in 1975, which later merged in 1990 to become Den norske Bank (DnB).


C.G. Sundts house on Muséplassen was built in 1881 by architect Edvard Madsen. It has been the property of the university of Bergen since 1968. 


The ambition for Sydneskvartalet was for it to become Bergen's Victoria Terrasse, and it was originally intended to have a single facade by Schak Bull when construction began in 1890. However, the project stalled and was only finished in 1915, resulting in various changes in style and cost-saving measures.


The plan for Haugeveien was adopted in 1891 and features a number of buildings from that period though construction was not fully realised due to opposition from one of the local property owners. The case was only settled by a supreme court ruling in 1916.  


The stock exchange building was originally built in 1860-61 by Franz Wilhem Schiertz but was given a new facade by Lars Solberg in 1893. It is one of only two buildings to survive the fire of 1916 and is now mainly used as a restaurant.


This building at the tip of the Nordnes peninsula was built in 1896 by the architect Schak Bull for a charitable institution providing accommodation for poor and retired mariners. The institution was originally created in 1571 and previous buildings were located in the vicinity of the old town hall. 


Skansen fire station was built in 1902-03 as a response to the fire in 1901. Architect Peter Andreas Blix originally intended to build a brick building in neo-gothic style, but a cheaper alternative was chosen, resulting in this wooden building by Paul Thedor Bjørnstad. It served as a fire station until 1969.


Little wooden houses clambering up hillsides is typical for Bergen but particularly for the area above.  Bryggen. The name of this street, Søndre Blekeveien, refers to an estate which was first referred to as Bleken in 1744. The manor house from 1772 was demolished in 1900 to make way for the new fire station.   


Den National Scene was built in 1906-09 after the architect Einar Oscar Schou won a competition in 1904. The theatre was founded in 1875, succeeding previous institutions from 1850 and 1794. The theatre building that had been used since 1794 was destroyed in a bombing raid in 1944. 


 Along with the stock exchange building, the headquarters of Bergens Privatbank survived the fire of 1916 and had been completed only three years before, in 1913. The architects were Fredrik Arnesen and Arthur Darre Kaarbø.


The cluster of buildings between Bryggen and Bergenhus are mostly modern due to the explosion in 1944, with the exception of this office building from 1919-20. It was originally built for the shipping company Det Nordenfjeldske Dampskibselskab by architect Eystein Michalsen. It was sold to Bergen port authorities in 1979 and has since been turned into a hotel.  


The first building to be completed after the fire of 1916 was built for Svaneapoteket, a pharmacy that was created in 1595 and is considered the country's oldest company still in existence. The architects behind the new building, completed in 1821, are Fredrik Arnesen and Arthur Darre Kaarbøe. The previous pharmacy was probably built after the fire of 1756 with alterations to the facade dated to 1848.


The rebuilding of Torgallmenningen is mostly to a uniform design concept by architect Finn Berner, who won a competition in 1923. The central avenue was originally created in 1582 and was first named Torgallmenningen after 1702.  


The Telegraph Building was completed in 1927 to a design by architects Finn Berner and Anton Kielland. The open competition was won by Finn Berner alone in 1923 but the telegraph company had already selected Kielland to take part in the project. The style has been described as neo-Georgian and differs from the neo-classical buildings, which dominate in the rest of the area rebuilt after the fire of 1916. 


Blaauwgården was built in 1936 by architect Leif Grung as a combined warehouse and office building. The facades are separated into two sections to indicate the space allocated to each function, though the building is now used purely for offices. The street C. Sundts gate was created after a fire in 1901 and consists mainly of art nouveau buildings from that period.


Gamle Bergen Museum was opened in 1949 and features a number of houses from the 18th and 19th centuries that have been relocated for the purpose of preservation. It is an open-air museum built on the grounds of a summer residence called Elsero.


A few modern buildings can be seen east of the traditional city centre, including a high-rise by architects Solheim and Jacobsen from 2008. The buildings in the foreground are Bergen Library from 1917 and Lysverket from 1935-38.