sábado, 14 de febrero de 2015

Cologne and Dusseldorf


St. Andreas is one of the 12 romanesque churches in Cologne. It was originally consecrated in 974 and rebuilt in the 12th century. The gothic choir and chapel were added in the following century.

Gross Sankt Martin was originally built between 1150 to 1250, after a fire destroyed the previous abbey.  Restorations were undertaken during the 19th-century and rebuilding took place after WWII, as the tower and nave had burnt to the ground in 1942. The exterior had been restored by 1965 while the interior was completed in 1985. Most of the buildings on Fischmarkt were built in "historical style" after the war destroyed 90% of the buildings there.

Construction of the cathedral of Cologne was begun in 1248. The eastern arm was completed in 1322  and sealed off from the rest of the construction site so it could be used for services while work continued. Construction came to a halt in 1473 and work only resumed in earnest in 1842. Surviving plans and drawing were used and the cathedral was finally completed in 1880.

The tower of the Cologne city hall was built in 1407-14 on a commission from the city's guilds. The rest of the building dates from 1330, having replaced a previous building from 1135.

The renaissance loggia (Rathauslaube) of Cologne city hall was built in 1569-73 to a design by Wilhelm Vernukken and replaced a previous loggia on the same location. The building on the left is known as Spanischer Bau. This was originally built in Dutch renaissance style in 1608-15 but was entirely rebuilt in 1953 due to war damage. 

The Jesuit church of St Maria Himmelfart was built in 1618-89 to a design by architect Cristoph Wamser. It is the biggest church in Cologne apart from the cathedral and may have incorporated parts of an earlier medieval structure. The rebuilding of the church after WWII destruction was completed in the 1980s.

The head office of the archbishop of the archdiocese of Cologne is located in this building, which seems to have been part of the monastery complex of St Maria Himmelfahrt.

Dom-Hotel was built in 1893 to a design by architects Heinrich Joseph Kayser and Karl von Grossheim. The hotel opened already in 1857 and the current building is the third Dom-Hotel on this site. The principal facade is on Roncalliplatz. The building suffered severe damage during WWII but was restored in the 1950s.

The building at the address Unter Fettenhennen 11 was restored to its original design in 1966 by architect Friedrich Wilhelm Kramer.

The Hohenzollern bridge was built in 1907-11 by engineers Fritz Beer and Friedrich Dirksen. It replaced the previous cathedral bridge from 1859. The new bridge was originally intended for rail and motor traffic but has only been used for rail and pedestrians since it was rebuilt after WWII.


St Lambertus is possibly the oldest building in Dusseldorf. It was originally built as a chapel in the 700s by Anglo-Saxon monks, and replaced by a church in the 1200s. Further extensions and changes from romanesque to gothic were completed in 1394. Storms and a nearby explosion caused damaged in the 17th century and tower was rebuilt in 1815. It was rebuilt again after WWII in imitation of the previous leaning tower. In front of the the church stands the Schlossturm, the only remaining part of the city palace. This was originally built in 1260 and developed into a renaissance-baroque palace in the 17th to 18th centuries but was destroyed by fire in 1872. On the corner of Burgplatz is the old Arts and Crafts school built in 1883 by architect Eberhard Westhofen. The modern section is from the 1980s.

The catholic church of Saint Maximilian, usually referred to as Maxkirche, was built in 1735-37, replacing a previous Franciscan church from 1666-68.

The building that now houses the justice ministry of North Rhine-Westphalia was built in 1866-70 by architect Carl Ferdinand Busse. The high-rise in the back was built in 1960-64 and given a redesign in 2000 by Ingenhoven architects.

Johanniskirche was built in 1875-81 to a design by architects Walter Kyllmann and Adolf Heyden. The decision to build had been taken in 1859 and a site was found in 1874.

Rothes Haus in Josephinenstrasse is one of the rare 19th-century buildings to survive WWII. It was built in 1887-88 by architect J. Gorres.

Haus der Universität on Schadowplatz was originally built in 1896-97 for the Niederrheinischen Bank to a design by architects Heinrich Kayser and Karl von Grossheim. As the architects were based in Berlin, the actual work was carried out under local architect Max Wohler. The ground floor was built for offices while the upper floors were flats for the two bank managers.

The Rhine promenade was originally built around 1900 by moving the embankments and creating two levels with the lower level used for shipping. After WWII, there were plans to turn the promenade into a road for cars but a tunnel was built in the 1990s instead and the promenade was redesigned. The buildings in this section was mostly built around 1910.

Steigenberger Parkhotel was built in 1901-02 to a design by architects Heinrich Kayser, Karl von Grossheim and Max Wohler. It was completed in time for the Industry and trade fair in Dusseldorf in 1902. The north and south wings were extended by Max Wohler in 1912. The hotel was rebuilt after WWII without the original mansard roof and dome. On the left is a modern extension to the Galeria Kaufhof Dusseldorf. This was originally built for the department store Leonhard Tietz in 1909 by architect Joseph Maria Olbrich. 

Neuer Zollhoff is a building complex in the Media Harbour designed by architect Frank O. Gehry and completed in 1998. The three buildings are clad in white plaster, brick and stainless steel respectively. 

The western section of Schadowstrasse is a pedestrian street and one of the leading shopping destinations in the city. Landmarks include Schadow Arkaden designed by architect Walter Brune in 1994 and the Peek & Cloppenburg flagship store designed by Richard Meier in 2001. 

The office complex KoBogen was completed in 2013 to a design by the architect Daniel Libeskind. The high-rise in the back is the Dreischeibenhaus from 1957-60 by architects Hentrich and Petschnigg. The park on the left, Hofgarten, is regarded as Germany's first public park. 

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